Nettle and Ginger
Stinging nettle and ginger are botanicals with a long history of human use. Both have been shown to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity.11,12
A controlled clinical trial of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) root for the treatment of symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, or prostate enlargement) showed, “Urtica dioica [has] beneficial effects in the treatment of symptomatic BPH. ”Specifically, six months of supplementation with nettle root led to decreasedInternational Prostate Symptom Scores, improved peak urinary flow rate, and decreases in post-void residual volume of urine in the bladder. Additionally, the treated group experienced a modest decrease in prostate size. 22 Researchers speculate that this effect may be due to aromatase inhibition or anti-inflammatory activity.11
Nettle root may have further benefits for aging men’s health. Lignans contained in nettle root may help prevent the binding of sex hormone-binding globulin to testosterone. This may help ensure that free testosterone is available for promoting male vitality and youthful sexual function.8
A constituent of ginger shows promise in protecting prostate health with aging. In both laboratory and animal prostate cancer models, a ginger constituent helped to modulate proteins involved in apoptosis (programmed cell death).50
Norway Spruce Lignan Extract
Plant lignans have been shown to benefit humans in a variety of ways.10,29,51 The plant lignan hydroxymatairesinol (HMR), derived from Norway spruce, is metabolized to “enterolactone” in the gut where it is absorbed into the bloodstream.15 Higher levels of serum enterolactones in men have been associated with decreased prostate cancer risk.51 Recent research on human prostate tissue indicates that enterolactone restricts the proliferation of human prostate cancer in the laboratory.52
This has been confirmed by other researchers. “The mammalian lignan enterolactone is a major metabolite of plant-based lignans that has been shown to inhibit the growth and development of prostate cancer,” wrote Chinese researchers, recently. Working with prostate cancer cells in the laboratory, the scientists found that enterolactone, derived from plant lignans, caused cancer cells to undergo apoptosis, or controlled cellular suicide. “Our findings encourage further studies of enterolactone as a promising chemopreventive agent against prostate cancer,” the researchers concluded.23 Finnish researchers working with animal models of human prostate cancer also concluded, “… dietary HMR [lignan] started at the early phase of the tumor development inhibits the growth of… human prostate cancer xenografts in athymic male mice.”13
Enterolactone such as that derived from Norway spruce acts via numerous mechanisms to benefit aging men’s health. Increasing estrogen levels in aging men are believed to represent a significant culprit in the development of both benign prostate enlargement and prostate cancer.53 Enterolactone functions via several mechanisms to reduce estrogen levels.
Enterolactone inhibits the aromatase enzyme that is responsible for converting testosterone into estradiol (a potent estrogen).54,55 By inhibiting the aromatase enzyme, aging men can reduce excess estrogen while simultaneously increasing beneficial free testosterone.
Another enzyme involved in both benign and malignant prostate disease is 5-alpha reductase. The 5-alpha reductase enzyme converts beneficial testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a potent metabolite. DHT provokes a stimulatory effect on both benign and malignant prostate cells.56
Enterolactones have been shown to inhibit 5-alpha reductase,57 thus reducing levels of DHT, which causes significant prostate discomfort in aging men. Not surprisingly, researchers have recently discovered that plant-derived lignans help relieve the symptoms of enlarged prostate in men.58
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