Increase the NUMBER of EFFICIENT MITOCHONDRIA (the ENERGY-PRODUCING BATTERIES of the cell) by stimulating “mitochondrial biogenesis-” Your cells need to get rid of large, inefficient mitochondria (from age and/or toxin poisoning) and replace them with smaller, more efficient mitochondria.

Exercise and choose from the above nutrients to stimulate  PGC-1a: The”master regulator” of mitochondrial biogenesis.




Take 300 mg/day of CoQ10. The scientific literature is now filled with studies documenting the therapeutic power of CoQ10 to  limit degenerative disease by boosting mitochondrial health and bioenergetic (energy-producing) capacity.

See also PQQ described below:

PQQ snip

Take 10-20 mg/day of PQQ (Pyrroloquinoline Quinone) that increases PGC-1a, and which activates genes that govern mitochondrial reproduction, protection, and repair. PQQ also affords potent cardioprotection and optimal defense against neuronal degeneration.

Take 500 mg/day of  Quercetin to increase your mitochondrial PGC-1a.  Quercetin increases the  enzyme NQO1 which reduces the breakdown of PGC-1a. 

Increase “Autophagy” in your cells

with Resveratrol, Dietary Restriction (Fasting, or low calorie dietary planning) and/or Metoformin–All have been shown to improve autophagy in the cells. Autophagey is the way your cells “clean house” and “recycle the trash. Autophagy is one of the cells ways of destroying bad mitochondria (via “mitophagy.”)

Increase NAD+ in the cell

with Elysium’s “Basic”: The science demonstrates that these ingredients, Nicotinamide Riboside and Pterostilbene will increase cell NAD+.: More NAD+ in the cell means more energy for the cell to dispose of inefficient mitochondria and build smaller, more efficient mitochondria. 

Decrease CD38 to increase cell energy.

Reducing the energy expended on this energy-expensive process allows more energy for these other repair processes. 


CD38 is a very inefficient enzyme and consumes as many as 100 NADs for every one cyclic-ADP-ribose that it makes. For this reason, some experts on CD38 feel that the #1 function of CD38 is to regulate cellular NAD levels.

A strong argument for this theory is the recent discovery that CD38 is found inside the cell as well, bound to membranes on the inner portion of the cell nucleus. Here it could deplete nuclear NAD.

 Interestingly, the apple skin-derived flavanoid, apigenin, is a powerful inhibitor of CD38.  Treatment of cell cultures with apigenin increased NAD levels in the cells, reduced global acetylation of proteins, and reduced the acetylation of p53 and RelA-p65 subunits of NF-kB.

Reference: 2012 Flavonoid apigenin is an inhibitor of the NAD+ ase CD38: implications for cellular NAD+ metabolism, protein acetylation, and treatment of metabolic syndrome.

Here is a list of the foods with the most concentrations of apigenin:

Value Per Nutrient Food
13506.20 mg 100 grams Apigenin Spices, parsley, dried
302.00 mg 100 grams Apigenin Parsley, raw
8.71 mg 100 grams Apigenin Peppermint, fresh
5.00 mg 100 grams Apigenin Thyme, fresh
4.61 mg 100 grams Apigenin Celery, raw
3.85 mg 100 grams Apigenin Rutabagas, raw
2.41 mg 100 grams Apigenin Celeriac, raw

Melatonin has multiple beneficial effects on your mitochondria.

Take 3-5 mg of Melatonin at bedtime.

Mitochondria Melatonin

Melatonin permeates cell membranes and scavenges the ROS (“free radicals”) in the cell cytoplasm, mitochondria and nucleus. In the cytoplasm, melatonin maintains GSH homeostasis. Melatonin also regulates the expression of anti-oxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRd) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and downregulates pro-oxidant enzymes, such as the NOSs, particularly the iNOS. Melatonin is accumulated in mitochondria at high concentrations, where it scavenges ROS and RNS. Melatonin also protects cardiolipin from oxidation and prevents respiratory chain complexes, as well as mtDNA from free radical attack, thus ultimately protecting the membrane permeability transition (mPT) pore, thus preventing cell apoptosis.

Reduce Mitochondrial Free Radicals (ROS & RNS)

1. Supplement with oral or liposomal Glutathione–The master free radical neutralizer. Also add 500mg twice daily of Acetyl-L-Carnitine and 200 mg/day of R-Alpha Lipoic Acid that together penetrate and protect the mitochondria
2. Stimulate gene production of antioxidants (by increasing enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) superoxide dismutase (SOD),and Catalase) with:
a. Make use of  herbals such as “Protandim” or other Nrf2-stimulating foods & products:

  • Cruciferous vegetables,
  • Resveratrol,
  • Wasabi,
  • Turmeric and many others

b. Hawthorn–Especially if there is heart involvement
c. Caloric restriction or intermittent fasting

d. Mild to moderate exercise
3. Take EXTRA Vitamin C and Pycnogenol.
4. Learn to separate activities that produce large amounts of free radicals. For instance, separate eating from exercise.
5. Start your meal with healthy nutrients to promote Liver & GI function. See Detox Liver

Supply vitamins and other supplements

in order to compensate for deficiencies with aging. Among them, are

  • biotin,
  • K2 (with K7),
  • vitamin E and tocotrienols,
  • thiamine (vitamin B1),
  • riboflavin (vitamin B2),
  • Vitamin B6,
  • triacylglycerol,
  • succinate,
  • folate,
  • dichloroacetate (DCA),
  • selenium
  • or a multi-antioxidant and multi-mineral combination.

Finally, Include high “ORAC” foods in your diet

–as these are graded by how well they neutralize the free radicals from a meal–Especially with high protein or high fat meals. Or use high ORAC supplements such as Optiberry or Purple defense.

Rank Food Serving Size Total Antioxidant
Capacity per
serving size
1 Small Red Bean 1/2 cup
dried beans
2 Wild blueberry 1 cup 13427
3 Red kidney bean 1/2 cup
dried beans
4 Pinto bean 1/2 cup 11864
5 Blueberry 1 cup cult-
ivated berries
6 Cranberry 1 cup
whole berries
7 Artichoke hearts 1 cup
8 Blackberry 1 cup 7701
9 Prune 1/2 cup 7291
10 Raspberry 1 cup 6058
11 Strawberry 1 cup 5938
12 Red Delicious apple 1 5900
13 Granny Smith 1 5381
14 Pecan 1 ounce 5095
15 Sweet cherry 1 cup 4873
16 Black plum 1 4844
17 Russet potato 1 cooked 4649
18 Black bean 1/2 cup
dried beans
19 Plum 1 4118
20 Gala apple 1 3903

To give you an idea of how ORAC-powerful the spices can be, look at this 2006 list from

Content of redox-active compounds (ie, antioxidants) in foods consumed in the United States

The 50 foods with the highest antioxidant content per 100 grams (< 4 ounces)

Product Antioxidant content1
mmol/100 g
Cloves, ground 125.549
Oregano leaf, dried 40.299
Ginger, ground 21.571
Cinnamon, ground 17.647
Turmeric powder 15.679
Walnuts 13.126
Basil leaf, dried 12.307
Mustard seed, yellow, ground 10.527
Curry powder 9.980
Pecans 9.668
Chocolate, baking, unsweetened 8.876
Paprika 8.601
Chili powder 8.372
Parsley, dried 7.430
Molasses, dark 4.900
Pepper, black 4.444
Artichokes, prepared 4.237
Chocolate, dark 4.188
Blackberries 3.990
Whole-grain cereal 3.412
Cranberries 3.289
Pudding mix, chocolate, cook-and-serve 3.026
Bran cereal 2.925
Power bar, chocolate flavor2 2.757
Chocolates, sugar-free 2.567
Raspberries 2.334
Strawberries 2.159
Blueberries 2.154
Cabbage, red, cooked 2.153
Wine, red 2.135
Barley malt syrup, organic 2.121
Prunes 2.018
Cherries, sour 1.814
Peppers, red, cooked 1.640
Chocolate cookies with vanilla creme filling 1.604
Cocoa Krispies cereal3 1.558
Chocolate chip cookies 1.524
Mustard, yellow, prepared 1.501
Milk-chocolate candy 1.483
Pistachios 1.426
Plums 1.330
Kiwi fruit 1.325
Corn flakes 1.255
Coffee 1.249
Spinach, frozen 1.226
Flaxseed, ground or milled 1.125
Rice and corn cereals 1.121
Toasty peanut crackers 1.101
Cupcakes, chocolate 1.059
Grape juice 1.011

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